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200th Theater Army Materiel Management Center
US Army, Europe

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History USAMMAE (1963-1976)

200th TAMMC (19..- Present)

Newspaper articles

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History US Army, Materiel Management Agency, Europe
1963 - 1976
(Source: USAMMAE Pamphlet 10-5, unknown date)

Wholesale supply support to the United States Army, Europe has been provided on a continuous basis since World War II by one supply and maintenance type activity in Europe. This organization, changing periodically in title and structure during its twenty-nine year history, has fulfilled its dynamic mission.

Through 1962, the supply and maintenance mission was accomplished by a collective group of eight technical services supply control agencies (SCA's), located mostly in France. During the next three years (1963 to 1965) the SCA's were merged into the United States Army Supply and Maintenance Agency (S&MA), which had its headquarters in Orleans, France. Its supply policy and financial management function, together with one automatic data processing facility (ADP) were located at Maison Forte, France, and its stock control activities, supported by a second ADP facility, were consolidated at Verdun, France. This new activity was also assigned responsibility for the supervision of depot level storage and maintenance missions of the United States Army Communications Zone, Europe, when Headquarters, 4th Logistical Command, located at Verdun, was deactivated. The complete supply and maintenance mission was then being performed by the S&MA with eight hundred fewer personnel than had been employed by its predecessor organizations.

The dissolution of the eight SCA's, the formation of the S&MA, and the assumption of depot storage and maintenance missions were forward steps toward the goal to consolidate and automate. The consolidation resulted in great savings by reduction in facilities and personnel at no loss of efficiency. It permitted the closing of operating points in Poitiers and Ingrandes, France, and left those located at Orleans and Verdun, France, and at Giessen, Germany. The simultaneous acquisition of modern ADP equipment, timed to coincide with the consolidation plan, reduced considerably the manual work involved in processing the thousand supply actions daily.

In mid-1965, the S&MA commenced operating under the military standard requisitioning and issue procedures (MILSTRIP); during the latter part of the year the processing of requisitions for brand name resale subsistence items was relocated to Giessen, Germany. The following year saw more changes. The United States Industrial Center, Europe, located at Sandhofen, Germany was discontinued resulting in the saving of considerable manpower. The four major rebuild plants at Mainz, Böblingen, Schwäbisch-Gmünd and Ober-Ramstadt, Germany, which were controlled by the United States Army Industrial Center, Europe, continued as independent activities, under the operational control of S&MA, assigned to United States Army Communications Zone, Europe.

International politics during the mid 1960's set the stage for an even greater impact on the conduct of United States Army supply and maintenance operations in Europe. In magnitude and depth, the relocation of all United States military forces out of France (FRELOC) begun in March 1966, and completed in May 1967, was a major undertaking and challenge for the S&MA. The S&MA performed its mission throughout the dislocation period without serious disruption. By the time the S&MA operational elements were physically moved, approximately three million tons of supplies had been shipped from France to Germany and/or the United States.

After the S&MA completed its move to Zweibrücken, Germany, further consolidations and management improvement actions highlighted the streamlining of operations. The Logistics Systems Management Office of the S&MA was activated to improve the data systems. The Depot Maintenance Division, which had moved from Maison Forte, France, to Munich, Germany in February 1967, was relocated to Zweibrücken in 1968. In addition, during the latter half of 1968, ADP equipment and personnel (which had been temporarily relocated from Verdun and Maison Forte, France, and mounted on rail car equipment located at Hoehmühlbach, 14 miles from Zweibrücken, Germany), was moved from the train site to the Kreuzberg Kaserne, high on a hill-overlooking Zweibrücken. Shortly thereafter, in 1968, third generation ADP equipment was acquired, and programmers were trained in common business oriented language (COBOL). In October 1968, a major policy change was adopted. This involved the management of major end items together with their related repair parts by systems managers rather than management by stock number. To implement this concept, the Equipment and Parts Division was dissolved and the Aviation and Electronics Division, the Automotive and Weapons Division and the Robility Equipment Division established.

On 25 April 1969, the S&MA was inactivated and Headquarters, United States Army Materiel Command, Europe (MATCOM) was activated at Zweibrücken, Germany. The responsibilities of the new command were expanded on 1 July 1969 by Headquarters United States Theater Army Support Command, Europe (TASCOM), which assigned all TASCOM depots, maintenance plants, and other wholesale supply and maintenance activities to MATCOM. Soon after August 1970, the Permissive Action Link Detachment, the US Army Advanced Weapons Support Command and the US Army Aviation Maintenance Center, Sandhofen, were reassigned from MATCOM to TASCOM. Depot complexing actions aligned Nahbollenbach Army Depot under Kaiserslautern Army Depot; and Pirmasens Army Depot and Mannheim Depot Activity under Germersheim Army Depot. The Giessen Depot Activity was phased out and the BNR mission transferred to Nahbollenbach.

MATCOM was inactivated 29 December 1972 and renamed the U.S. Army Materiel Management Agency, Europe with the responsibility for wholesale logistics as an Agency of TASCOM. Command of the complexes (Germersheim and Kaiserslautern Army Depot), the four maintenance plants, the 97th Quartermaster Battalion and Burtonwood Army Depot was assumed by TASCOM while USAMMAE retained operational control. The 60th Ordnance Group was formed from part of the former MATCOM Directorate of Munition and Missiles and incorporated Miesau Army Depot as a subordinate element.

On 23 January 1973, command and operational control of the 97th Quartermaster Battalion was transferred to the US Army Transportation Command, Europe, with USAMMAE retaining the responsibility for technical control.

On 1 October 1973, command and operational control of the Kaiserslautern and Bremerhaven Cold Stores was transferred from the Directorate of Food, USAMMAE to the Kaiserslautern Army Depot.

On 1 January 1974, the 97th Quartermaster Battalion, including the 993d Petroleum Products Laboratory (Base), less the two truck companies, was reassigned from the US Army Transportation Command, Europe (USATRANSCOMEUR) to USAMMAE, and placed under the operational control of the Directorate of Petroleum. The two truck companies, B and C, remained under the command of USATRANSCOMEUR.

On 1 February 1974, by direction of TASCOM, the two depot complexes, Kaiserslautern and Germersheim; the Burtonwood Army Depot, and US Army Maintenance Plants Mainz, Ober-Ramstadt and Boeblingen, reverted to the command and control of HQ, USAMMAE. The USAMP Schwaebisch-Gmuend, in view of its impending phase-out on 30 June 1974, remained under the command of TASCOM, with HQ, USAMMAE retaining operational control.

On 1 May 1974, by direction of USAREUR in accordance with General Order No. 62 dated 23 April 1974, effective 1 May 1974, USAMMAE assumed command and control of the 60th Ordnance Group.

On 26 March 1975, USAREUR approved the Project STREAMLINE reorganization of USAMMAE. This reorganization involved the elimination of the Directorate of Inventory Control, Stock Control and Subsistence Management and the establishment of a Materiel Management Center (MMC). The MMC took over duties and functions of the disbanded Directorates with the exception of food procurement, a duty which was assigned to the Defense Supply Agency. This reorganization involved extended Logistics Activity realignment, to include the closing of the US Army Maintenance Plant at Boeblingen, and Pirmasens Army Depot; the realignment of stocks from Nahbollenbach to Kaiserslautern and Germersheim Depots, respectively, and the turn over of wholesale subsistence management to the Defense Supply Agency. Coincident to this reorganization, the Standard Army Intermediate Level System for Depots (SAILS) was implemented and became operational at Germersheim Army Depot. Reorganization and realignments were completed on 1 July 1975. (see ALOG article)

Supply and Maintenance Agency
Provide wholesale supply support to the United States Army Europe. Supervise depot level storage and maintenance Missions of the US Army Communications Zone Europe. Maintain operational control of the four major rebuild plants.

US Army Materiel Command, Europe (MATCOM)
Provided same support as the Supply and Maintenance Agency. In addition TASCOM assigned all TASCOM depots, Maintenance Plants and other wholesale supply and maintenance activities to MATCOM.

US Army Materiel Management Agency, Europe
Provided same support as MATCOM. In addition the two depot complexes at Kaiserslautern and Germersheim; the Burtonwood Army Depot, and the four Maintenance Plants reverted to the command and control of USAMMAE. USAMMAE assumed command and control of the 60th Ord Group and exercised management and technical supervision over US Army petroleum pipeline systems and related facilities in Central Europe and Italy. The 63d F&AO, 993 QM Lab, were also attached to USAMMAE.

US Army Materiel Management Center, Europe
Manage USAREUR intermediate level supply and maintenance operations including supply control, stock control, materiel maintenance, distribution, and disposition of classes II, III, IV, VII, and IX supplies, including: (1) PWRMS (2) operational project stocks, (3) Decrement stocks, (4) USAREUR source items, (5) ERPSL and (6) health, welfare, and convenience items. Serves as USAREUR manager for (1) SIMS-X, (2) AESR, (3) ACS, (4) BOV, (5) critical assemblies, (6) TARP, (7) WMIP, (8) ORF, (9) DAMWO, and (l0) EPRP.


Personal recollections by Charles Seland
(click on image to read the PDF file)

Directorate of Management Information Systems (DMIS)
(Source: STARS & STRIPES, Aug 26, 1973)
The Directorate of Management Information Systems (DMIS) is responsible for operating a large computer complex on Kreuzberg Kaserne. With a personnel strength of 226 military and civilian employees, and equipped with two large-scale, third-generation computers, the complex operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

The primary mission of DMIS is maintaining management control of millions of tons of supply items through a management information system (MIS). It also has functional responsibility over the data processing elements of five major depots and four maintenance plants in Europe. (This includes responsibility for systems implementation, maintenance, justification and acquisition of hardware.)

The complex's two computers process more than a quarter-million requisitions a month.

History 200th Theater Army Materiel Management Center
19.. - 19..

Newspaper articles
(Source: Army Logistician, July-August 1976)

The Army Materiel Management Center, Europe, has been established as a separate command under operational control of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, United States Army, Europe (USAREUR). The new command, established under the plan for modernization of logistics (MODLOG) in USAREUR, will be a control center permitting centralized management over designated theater assets through continuous review of supply and maintenance actions. Headquarters of the center will be located at Kreuzberg Kaserne, Zweibrücken. The Army Materiel Management Agency, Europe, is scheduled for inactivation on 30 September 1976.

(Source: Army Logistician, May-June 1977)
USAREUR's Changing Logistics Scene

By Maj Gen Arthur J. Gregg
Major General Arthur J. Gregg is the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics at Headquarters, U.S. Army, Europe and Seventh Army. His previous assignments include deputy director, Supply and Maintenance Directorate, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, Department of the Army, and commander, European Exchange System.
During the last few years we have often heard the comment that the action in today's Army is in Europe. This observation reflects not only on the mission and quality of the United States Army, Europe, but also reflects on the spirit and determination of the command to make things better. While this forward momentum is present in all areas, it is especially noticeable in logistics. Changes are taking place that will have a fundamental impact on our logistics concepts, structure, and operations. Many of these changes have already been implemented.

It appears that our logistics structure is always in a state of change. These changes are often driven by economic and political considerations rather than logistics considerations. As examples, the relocation from France and accompanying reorganization of our logistics structure were primarily politically driven, while the more recent deactivation of the theater army support command and the transfer of logistics operations to the V and VII Corps and 21st Support Command were essentially economic measures to save resources -- men and money.

There is always some danger, however, in classifying changes by purpose -- economic, political, or military. In today's complex world these factors tend to overlap or interrelate, and the degree of importance is often influenced by time and one's perspective of the changes. Certainly, this is true of the ongoing organizational and functional changes under the Modernization of Logistics (MODLOG) program.

The key change under MODLOG is the elimination of theater level logistics. The United States Army Materiel Management Agency, Europe, which managed our theater level logistics, was inactivated on 1 October 1976. Essential theater supply management functions were transferred to the U. S. Armv, Europe, Materiel Management Center, which was established on 1 July 1976.. Two Army depots have been redesignated as reserve storage activities, and one of these activities has been consolidated under the Kaiserslautern Army Depot. As a follow-on action, stocks at Kaiserslautern Army Depot will be reduced by attrition, and that depot will also become a reserve storage activity. This means that V and VII Corps and the 21st Support Command will interface directly with the continental United States logistics base for support. While these changes may cause some apprehension among the traditionalists, they are consistent with the Army's doctrine for echelons above division.

The traditional concept that the operations of the continental United States commands, such as the Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command, Defense Logistics Agency, and Military Traffic Management Command, "stop at the water's edge" has also given way to change. Each of these commands has been extended into the European theater. In July 1975, Defense Logistics Agency assumed responsibility for wholesale subsistence support under its charter for worldwide integrated management of subsistence. Plans are now being developed for the agency to operate cold storage facilities at Kaiserslautern and Bremerhaven and the subsistence portion of the Germersheim Reserve Storage Activity.

On 1 July 1976 the Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command assumed responsibility for the Mainz and Oberramstadt maintenance facilities, which are the only Army depot maintenance facilities in Europe. With the transfer of these two facilities, that command became responsible for providing all depot level maintenance for U.S. Army, Europe. Concurrent with the transfer of depot maintenance facilities, command of the Transportation Terminal Group, Europe, passed to the Military Traffic Management Command, which now exercises command of all water terminals in Europe.

We are also taking many new initiatives in logistics rationalization and interoperability. During Reforger 1976 and the Autumn Forge series of exercises, extensive supply and service support was provided to U.S. Forces operating with allied forces. In turn, we provided similar logistics support to allied forces serving with U.S. Forces.

The Belgium-Netherlands-Luxembourg line-of-communication agreements were, for the first time, significantly exercised. Four ships with equipment for the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) were unloaded and the equipment moved by rail and highway to assembly areas in Germany. Host nations provided a full range of port and rail services; billeting, food, and medical services for U.S. personnel; and convoy, fuel, and limited maintenance support for the more than 2,000 transiting vehicles.

We are expanding our arrangements with host nations for a wide range of logistics support in peace and war. These arrangements will increase our reliance on host nations and will allow us to achieve a more favorable balance between combat and combat service support forces.

Each logistics initiative or change has its own unique challenge. However, the most pervasive challenges have been the timing and the commitment of resources needed to pace the command through a series of changes without degrading peacetime support or our ability to respond to contingencies. We are encouraged by the current progress.

(Source: Army Logistician, May-June 1977)
MODLOG - USAREUR's Logistics Blueprint

By Lt Col David A. Braithwaite
Lieutenant Colonel David A. Braithwaite is assigned to the Supply and Maintenance Division, ODCSLOG, Headquarters, U.S. Army, Europe, and 7th Army. Colonel Braithwaite has been a project manager on the U.S. Army, Europe, MODLOG program since its inception.
The logistics support of U.S. Army, Europe's combat forces has required improved and more rapid support for those forces. At the same time there has been a reduction in the ratio of support personnel to combat forces. The actions taken in this environment have resulted in a reduction of approximately 50 percent of the support forces since 1969. Each reduction action was accomplished through elimination and consolidation of support activities, which eventually resulted in a less than optimum logistics support posture. Improvements to the system were required and could only be made through a significant restructuring of the logistics support channels. From this requirement came the Modernization of Logistics program, or MODLOG.

MODLOG was initiated in September 1975 and was based on the dual premise that U.S. Army, Europe, must recognize that additional resources will not become available in peacetime and, therefore, the command must structure itself to live within its present resources. The program has been designed to incorporate the Standard Army Intermediate Level Supply (SAILS) subsystem and to result in a structure compatible with the Echelons Above Division-Extended doctrine. The program orients on the command's wartime logistics missions, eliminates redundancy between U.S. Army, Europe, and continental United States agencies, and promotes partnership arrangements with contractors, host nations, and continental United States logistics activities. The three objectives of the MODLOG program are to --

Optimize the logistics structure and organization.

Increase reliance on the Continental United States logistics base.
Increase host-nation and contractor support.
The key feature of the MODLOG program is the air line of communications (ALOC) for shipping repair parts directly from the Continental United States European-oriented depot to U.S. Army, Europe, units. This ALOC began in January 1977 and delivers approximately 1,500 short tons of repair parts each month to nearly 90 direct support and general support units. The ALOC originates at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, and terminates at either Rhein Main or Ramstein Air Bases, Germany. Intra-Germany distribution of ALOC materiel is by Army trucks with direct delivery to the direct and general support units. Achieving the planned goal of 20 days order-ship time will not only provide better and faster response to the supported units but will also permit a reduction in the quantity of repair parts stored in the command's depots. The ability to accomplish these actions permits optimal logistics support.

To achieve the first objective, U.S. Army, Europe, is establishing a limited general support supply base in the V Corps, VII Corps, and the 21st Support Command. The general support base is destined to provide each of the subordinate commands a stand-alone capability and the ability to deal directly with Continental United States logistics activities. This is being accomplished by providing each subordinate command with an expanded materiel management center, the SAILS automated data processing system, a general support supply company, an expanded G4 office to cover the additional coordination required, and a branch office of the U.S. Army, Europe, retail stock fund.

Flow of Requisitions and Supplies - Proposed under MODLOG
The current requistion flow from direct support units is through the respective support commands and the U.S. Army, Europe, Materiel Management Center to the appropriate Continental United States national inventory control point. Materiel is sent to the direct support units and the depots through the Direct Support System. Requisitions leaving the U.S. Army, Europe, Materiel Management Center are stock-funded; and money from the operation and maintenance, Army, account is obligated to reimbuse the stock fund upon receipt of a bill. Under MODLOG the requisitioning process for all requisitions except for major and theater critical items will be transferred from the U.S. Army, Europe, Materiel Management Center to the support command materiel management center.
Requisitions will continue to be controlled by the U.S. Army, Europe, Materiel Management Center. As shown in the chart on page 6, the U.S. Army, Europe, Materiel Management Center will operate outside the main flow of requisition traffic and control the war reserves and project stocks in the three remaining reserve storage activities at Kaiserslautern and Germersheim, Germany, and at Burtonwood in England. The direct support unit requisition flow under the new system will be to the respective support command materiel management center and from there to the continental United States national inventory control point.

All requisitions leaving the support command materiel management center will cite U.S. Army, Europe, stock fund authority and materiel will be forwarded to the direct support unit by the ALOC. Upon receipt of the materiel at the direct support unit, operation and maintenance, Army, funds will be obligated to reimburse the stock fund.

The general support supply companies being established in each support command will stock, in support of operational readiness, a safety level of repair part supplies based on demand history. Additionally, each general support supply company will also stock missile essential repair parts stockage list items, with the corps support commands stocking for their own missile systems and the 21st Support Command stocking for all others.

General support air items, including aircraft intensively managed items, will be stocked in the aviation intermediate maintenance battalions. All general support secondary items, regardless of storage locations, will be controlled and released by the support command materiel management center, unless they have been designated as theater critical. The general support supply companies will also stock, at the direction of the support command materiel management center, selected items of direct support unit excesses from within their respective commands.

Direct support units will continue the current practice of retaining all nonstockage list items for 60 days and all authorized stockage list items in quantities up to twice the requisitioning objective number. All items exceeding these criteria and not selected for stockage at the general support supply company will be returned to the 21st Support Command's central field return processing point at Kaiserslautern.

This field return processing point will receive, classify, and store the materiel for 60 days while it is reported through the Defense European Pacific Redistribution Agency to the national inventory control point. During this time, the processing point will respond to referral orders from the redistribution agency and also to shipping directives from the national inventory control point. Because requisitions go through the agency on their way to the national inventory control point, the agency, in effect, will cross-level field returns among major subordinate command direct support units. This will satisfy current requirements and prevent one unit from returning an item while another unit is requisitioning the same item.

By getting disposition instructions from the national inventory control center and the redistribution agency within 60 days from the date the materiel is reported excess, large quantities of unwanted stock will not be retained. This will also minimize the number of personnel needed to care for it. Plans are to maximize, to the extent possible, the use of returning ALOC aircraft for retrograde shipment of field returns.

The MODLOG task, to eliminate theater level intermediate logistics, is two-thirds complete with the establishment of the ALOC and the inactivation of the U.S. Army Materiel Management Agency, Europe. The agency's materiel management functions have been assigned to the USAREUR Materiel Management Center or transferred to other commands. The remaining task is to reduce depot stocks to pre-positioned war reserves, operational project stocks, and decremented stocks. The depots will then be converted to reserve storage activities. Department of the Army has approved the depot stock reductions, and a detailed plan has been jointly developed and approved by the Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command and U.S. Army, Europe.

Excess materiel reports have been provided to the national inventory control points for screening against item demand histories. The inventory control points, in turn, are providing disposition instructions to Headquarters, U.S. Army. Europe. Excess materiel is being shipped from the depots to the continental United States and property disposal is scheduled for completion by September 1977. Other materiel in the depots is being purchased and issued to the subordinate commands for the initial stocking of the general support base and otherwise reduced through satisfying the units daily demands.

Funds from the sale of this materiel will be returned to the Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command. Selected portions of the materiel will be reconstituted in a Continental United States depot for U.S. Army, Europe. The total reduction effort is scheduled to be completed by the end of fiscal year 1978.

U.S. Army, Europe, will increase its reliance on Continental United States for support of the European forces by eliminating redundant logistics functions and by halting functions not essential in wartime. As a first step in achieving this objective, remote areas will be placed on direct support from Continental United States for non-subsistence materiel rather than on the U.S. Army, Europe, Materiel Management Center. Remote areas are defined as all activities outside the geographical boundaries of the V and VII Corps and 21st Support Command. They include the areas of Berlin, NATO SHAPE Support Group, Southern European Task Force, Greece, Turkey, the Middle East, and all the military assistance advisory groups and missions throughout Europe.

In the past, activities in remote areas submitted requisitions to the U.S. Army, Europe, Materiel Management Center for fill or pass to Continental United States for fill. As daily operating non-subsistence stocks in the depots are reduced and oriented more toward operational readiness of the combat forces, requisitions from remote areas will be sent more frequently to Continental United States for fill. The command has, therefore, arranged for remote area requisitions to go directly to the appropriate Continental United States national inventory control point, thereby reducing the time required for a supply action to begin. Points have been established in Berlin, NATO SHAPE Support Group, and Southern European Task Force through which all accounts in those respective areas will requisition. The central account in the Southern European Task Force incorporates accounts in Italy, Greece, and Turkey.

All remote areas obligate operation and maintenance, Army, funds upon submission of their requisitions. All accounts have reported improved direct support from Continental United States since this procedure was implemented. The other remote areas generally receive their main support from channels outside U.S. Army, Europe, but had the option to draw on it for support until I October 1976 when this option was withdrawn.

Placing all commissaries under the Direct Commissary Support System for nonperishable subsistence is another task being pursued jointly by U.S. Army, Europe, Department of the Army, and the Defense Logistics Agency. When the system is fully implemented, both brand name resale and troop issue commissaries will requisition and receive supplies directly from Continental United States. A small reserve of nonperishable subsistence will be retained at Germersheim Reserve Storage Activity as a peacetime surge tank for emergency requirements.

Another initiative under MODLOG is the transfer of selected functions to Continental United States agencies located in Europe or in Continental United States. The first action completed was the transfer of the Mainz Maintenance Plant and the Ober-Ramstadt Tire Recapping Plant to Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command on 1 July 1976. Operation of the European ports was transferred to the Military Traffic Management Command on 1 July and Southern European Task Force ports were transferred on I October 1976. U.S. Army, Europe, has negotiated with the Army-Air Force European Exchange System to operate the clothing sales stores and expects to complete this action by mid-1977.

U.S. Army, Europe, has also started negotiations with Department of the Army and the Defense Logistics Agency for DLA operation of the Bremerhaven and Kaiserslautern perishable subsistence cold stores. Although no target date has been set, the concerned commands agree that operation of the cold stores by DLA is logical. The remaining function transfers being negotiated with Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command are relatively minor but are being pursued in order to draw upon the Continental United States computer capability and data repositories. Examples of these functions are the processing of TAMMS and modification work order information, Army equipment status reports, and catalog data support.

The final objective of MODLOG is to increase host-nation and contractor support. This is a continuing lone-range effort that will not end with the MODLOG program. To attain this objective, the command is contracting for the maintenance of rail equipment and for the operation of laundry and drycleaning plants. Other areas being investigated for possible contract are kitchen police, installation equipment maintenance, line haul of petroleum, and motor pool operations and maintenance. U.S. Army, Europe, has also investigated possible host-nation performance of ammunition depot operations and security. Each of these actions is being evaluated in light of the command's responsibilities to be sure that any required capability will be available in wartime.

The logistics restructuring under the MODLOG program is targeted for completion by 30 September 1977. By then, the general support base will be established and both V and VII Corps and 21st Support Command will be standing alone requisitioning class II, limited class IV, and class IX items directly from Continental United States using the SAILS ABX system. The inventory in the depots will be substantially reduced and most of the other actions will also be completed. These improvements will be accomplished with fewer manpower spaces. The significant results of the program will be improved responsive support and increased operational readiness of the combat forces.

(Source: Army Logistician, September-October 1979)
USAREUR Logistics in the Eighties

By Maj Gen Sampson H. Bass, Jr.
Major General Sampson H. Bass, Jr. is the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics at Headquarters, U.S. Army, Europe and Seventh Army. His previous assignments include commanding general, 3d Support Command, V Corps, and Project Manager for Chemical Demilitarization and Installation Restoration.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a political as well as a military alliance formed to deter aggression and promote stability in the North Atlantic area. While this concept of deterrence has successfully maintained peace in Europe for more than a quarter of a century, the organization is looking to the future to meet the logistics challenges of the 1980's.

The NATO signatories have recognized that an effective logistics environment requires not only a high degree of national self-sufficiency but also a sophisticated level of interdependency. This philosophy has fostered the thrust of United States Army, Europe (USAREUR)-NATO logistics for the 1980's to optimize logistics resources.

Meeting the requirements envisioned for the 1980's will cause USAREUR to make significant changes based on the dynamic European environment. Circumstances responsible for these changes include an expansion of the traditional Central Army Group (CENTAG) area into the Northern Army Group (NORTHAG) area; increasingly complex relationships with NATO allies requiring interdependency through expanded use of host nation support; and the introduction of new technology, including sophisticated weapons and new computer systems.

In developing and carrying out these changes, these actions are necessary. Implementation of a total systems manager concept at theater army level for each of the tactical weapon and critical logistics systems must become a reality. In addition, wholesale logistics activities, such as the U.S. Army Development and Readiness Command (DARCOM) and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), must increase their presence in the theater to enhance the Direct Support System and strengthen the continental United States (CONUS)-communications zone (COMMZ) interface. Cooperative alliance logistics, which includes more and better use of activities such as the NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency, must be further developed.

Since the supply system and the force structure required to manage, receive, store, issue, and distribute supplies must be applicable to peacetime, transition to war, and wartime situations, a realistic balance between peacetime constraints and wartime demands will have to be achieved. In general, peacetime policies and procedures that provide for facilities and force structure must be the same as those in war. Provisions must be made for transition to war within a short warning scenario and for sustaining combat forces in the early stages of war until resupply from CONUS can be effected.

In anticipation of wartime needs, the role of the general support (GS) base takes on critical importance. The wholesale (DARCOM) activities in theater will contribute to the sustainability of the GS base by repairing end items, components, and assemblies for GS base stock fill. These stocks are used to fill surge requirements of the combat elements and, as necessary, to support units deployed from CONUS. The GS base is being expanded from the current 6,000 to 9,000 lines to 15,000 to 20,000 lines. This capability will provide USAREUR the sustainability required during both the transition to war and during war.

To provide the corps with the capability to accommodate the expanded GS supply base and to conform to new doctrinal procedures, additional GS supply units and command and control headquarters are programed to enhance the corps logistics base in peacetime. The transition to war will provide the opportunity to further add to logistics depth as pre-positioned war reserve materiel stocks become more intensively managed and CONUS-based war reserve stocks and preplanned supply support packages are called forward. General support base activity will expand from its present function -- fill of high priority requests and redistribution of excess -- to become the major source of supply for theater elements. The CONUS air line of communications materiel flow begins to shift from the direct support units (DSU's) to the general support units (GSU's) to fully implement the sustaining base.

Following the declaration of hostilities, replenishment stocks will flow into the GSU's from the surface line of communication as will critical end items, components, and assemblies supplied through production lines established when possible by the theater.

Greater interdependency between USAREUR and the host nation will be realized through expanded use of labor support and transportation services to free trained military technicians to perform other and more urgently required tasks. In addition, allied trades would be incorporated into established organizations to further increase wartime capacity and production to return required items to the supply system.

Lastly, we have developed an extensive program to provide covered storage for all pre-positioned materiel configured to unit sets (POMCUS), theater reserve equipment, and ammunition to support an increased number of divisions in war until CONUS resupply is effected. The program includes POMCUS in NORTHAG equivalent to three divisions, thus increasing the levels of theater reserve stocks, and continued enhancement of the supporting logistics force structure.

You can see now the direction that USAREUR logistics will take in the 1980's. Let's look next at the improvements required by evolving doctrine in specific areas of support.

Subsistence. Class I support of USAREUR was drastically affected by organizational changes in the mid-1970's. Under a reorganization that took place in 1974, corps and division ration breakdown points were eliminated while most troop issue commissaries were civilianized and turned over to installation control.

Although this made peacetime operations more efficient, it practically eliminated class I support capability for field operations. In 1976-1977, the troop issue function was separated from the resale commissary and troop issue subsistence activities were established. These activities were placed under control of combat service support (CSS) elements of the major USAREUR commands. These actions improved the peacetime class I support functions but still left three serious shortfalls.

The first, lack of adequate visibility and support capability for in-country stocks, requires development of procedures to incorporate class I into a GS base. The 1974 reorganization eliminated not only the majority of the CSS organizational class I spaces but also the class I management spaces in the corps materiel management center (MMC). We are attempting to resolve this shortfall through decentralization of subsistence management from USAREUR's theater army MMC to the corps support command. This substantially expands the class I management capability in USAREUR subordinate commands and creates a nucleus for GS operations in peace and war.

A second shortfall involves the transition of retail subsistence operations from a peacetime posture to that required to provide wartime support. Current functional realinements should minimize the reorganizational turbulence characteristic during transition to war. As in the case of GS base requirements, decentralization is proving to be the vehicle for resolving the shortfall.

Implementation is occurring through the installation of the expanded Standard Army Intermediate Level System (SAILS-ABX). It will replace an older system used in processing class I requisitions and managing stock fund operations. Its installation will allow corps support commands to submit requisitions directly to the CONUS inventory control point. The SAILS-ABX enhances the corps stand alone capability in class I management.

The final major shortfall involves insuring that the class I wholesaler is capable of performing his mission in war as he performs it in peace. Assumption of wholesaler missions by the theater army commander during the first critical days of war could create unacceptable turmoil. We are now in the process of finalizing agreements with the DLA for the class I mission.

Defense Subsistence Region-Europe, the in-country agency of DLA, will provide wholesale inventory management of class I. In periods of mobilization, it will interface with the theater army materiel management center to execute applicable USAREUR operation plans and war standing operating procedure missions and tasks. Distribution of class I will be provided through a single pipeline managed by DLA under theater army guidance. The first step of this plan was completed when DLA accepted control of USAREUR class I storage activities in April of this year.

Bulk Petroleum.
U.S. Army, Europe, has an austerely manned peacetime petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) management structure. Accepting current resource limitations as an expected constraint in the peacetime force structure, USAREUR has carefully reviewed critical shortfalls and identified two significant areas requiring immediate action.

The first is a requirement to provide corps with a POL planning and management capability. This capability has fallen victim to peacetime resource diversions. The POL plans officer at corps G4 and the POL management section within the support command materiel management center have been eliminated in recent manning documents. A current USAREUR action reinstates the POL plans officer at corps G4. While peacetime requirements do not require full manning of the POL section of the support command materiel management center, the need for a nucleus of POL personnel does exist. This addition will enable the corps to manage their GS level POL stocks better than they are now able to do.

The second significant shortfall occurs in the area of wartime management of theater level POL stocks. Previously, USAREUR has been a CENTAG-oriented force. Northern Germany was considered to be "someone else's" responsibility. As such, a single petroleum group was considered adequate for USAREUR POL operations. That is no longer the case. The geographical structure of NATO creates new challenges in providing POL support to U.S. Forces throughout Europe. To satisfy these challenges, USAREUR has proposed that a second petroleum group be used to support the NORTHAG area. The two petroleum groups would not be limited to their traditional pipeline operations mission, but would also perform all other functions associated with POL supply and distribution.

As with other commodities, class V has seen changes in the 1970's that will significantly impact on ammunition management in the 1980's. These changes have been both organizational and requirements-oriented.

In the implementation of echelons above division doctrine, the forward ammunition direct support battalions were reassigned from the USAREUR ammunition group to each of the corps. The remainder of the group was assigned to the 21st Support Command to manage the rear area. Ammunition management cells are now being added to the corps materiel management centers. These actions are consistent with phase II requirements. The corps are now in a better position to make the transition to war although there is still a shortfall in ammunition management and handling capability. During the early 1980's, the corps must expand and strengthen this capability in order to cope with their significantly increased class V mission.

Another change that had a drastic impact on ammunition management was the threefold increase in the USAREUR ammunition stockage objective resulting from the publication of new ammunition consumption rates. This had the immediate effect of highlighting a tremendous shortage of storage space and handling capability. It also added a new dimension to the scope of management because it resulted in the need to establish a multimillion dollar storage expansion program, which is expected to be completed in the late 1980's.

The program involves expanding U.S.-controlled sites, acquiring space in host nation depots, and securing additional real estate in Germany as well as other NATO countries for construction of new storage activities. This, in turn, requires additional personnel to manage the large increase in stocks in numerous and diverse locations throughout Western Europe.

In the 1980's, USAREUR must look to strengthening its ammunition management capability at all echelons in order to meet this challenge. This must be done by increasing the number of management personnel as well as improving ammunition management systems. Expansion of the Standard Army Ammunition System to the corps needs to be accelerated. Overall, the challenge of the eighties requires a competent peacetime management structure that can rapidly make the transition to war.

Repair Parts.
During the latter half of the seventies, the logistics of class IX supply truly came of age. Despite significant reductions in the logistics force structure, we instituted an air line of communication and the Direct Support System, started direct CONUS requisitioning by the corps, and installed SAILS in the major subordinate commands of USAREUR. The result of these programs has been to forge a strong. resilient, responsive system for class IX that combines the advantages of airlift, rapid data transmission by satellite, and a modern automated management system.

To maintain a high state of readiness, we must continne to manage and refine the programs that were successful in bringing us to where we are today. Although the reduction in order-ship time from 65 days in December 1976 to 29 days in March 1979 has been a significant achievement, further reductions are desirable and continuation of the air line of communication-Direct Support System is mandatory. Similarly, we must continue to improve our supply management capability by extending SAILS-ABX into the corps and upgrading our SAILS hardware with the IBM 370-138 systems.

During the eighties we will improve our wartime sustainability by expanding the GS base in the corps and the COMMZ. This program calls for a repair parts supply company in each corps and a similar unit in the COMMZ. These units will manage an inventory of 15,000 to 20,000 lines designed to cover the combat authorized stockage list of the DSU's and GSU's and provide a safety level to the theater of 30 days of sup ply of air line of communication parts and 60 days of supply of non-air-line-of-communication class IX. In peacetime, the GS base will enhance readiness by filling issue priority group I requests for authorized stockage list items, and in wartime the GS base will insure sustainability by being the primary source of supply for the DSU's and GSU's in USAREUR.

The fundamental maintenance task in the 1980's continues to be support of materiel readiness. The maintenance doctrine of the 1980's will evolve to place greater emphasis on the "support forward" concept. This concept, as described in the Phase II Study, provides that most corps level direct and general support maintenance capability will be devoted to the rapid repair and return of combat essential weapon systems to using units. More time-consuming jobs and efforts in support of the theater as a whole will be accomplished by COMMZ or CONUS maintenance units and activities.

To accommodate these changes, USAREUR is reorganizing its theater army repair program to provide for more end item repair work by corps GS maintenance units and increased major assembly repair by the 21st Support Command. Plans call for USAREUR's area maintenance organization to be streamlined to improve the communication and evacuation capabilities. The role of DARCOM in the theater will continue to be of great interest and importance. The definition and division of maintenance tasks between USAREUR and DARCOM is the key to determining DARCOM's role and is the subject of ongoing study efforts. One example of the expanded role of DARCOM is the transfer of calibration and repair of test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment in theater from USAREUR to DARCOM.

The Army's concept of transportation in Europe has evolved considerably during the past decade and will keep pace with changing logistics doctrine as we move into the 1980's. The challenge planners face is to structure a transportation system that will support the flow of supplies to the users in the volume required.

Today's transportation specialist in Europe has to work on two very important problems-the first is to continue to prepare and develop an organization that works well in peace and war, and the second is to absorb and integrate the expanding role of host nation support.

The existing transportation network can make the transition to war without having to absorb drastic new changes in missions and functions. Operators at many levels now do essentially the same kinds of tasks they will be required to perform during wartime. Because the transportation system is operating now to support U.S. Forces in Europe, training goes on day-to-day and is not limited by maneuver area availability and only infrequently by weather.

The 4th Transportation Brigade is the peacetime operator for activities that stretch from the European coast to deep within the interior and include sea, air, rail, highway, and inland waterway routes. During wartime this role will expand even further when the 4th Transportation Brigade becomes the transportation command-a mission that brings with it responsibilities for theater management of surface transportation. Within this framework, coordination with other component commands and allied transportation agencies becomes routine.

Planners are being challenged now to constantly update procedures and refine techniques that will provide for sufficient mobility during peace and serve as a basis for transition to war. Equally challenging are the problems transportation planners in Europe will share with their fellow logisticians during the 1980'show to operate in a logistically austere environment.

The real problem is how to live in an era where host nation dependency is a way of life. The years ahead will be marked by learning and getting used to the fact that the ship that arrives at Rotterdam or any other port in Europe will be berthed with commercial tugs and discharged by contractor stevedores, the cargo loaded onto a host nation train by local nationals, and then moved halfway across central Europe before it gets into U.S. hands. It means getting used to the fact that we depend largely upon civilians to move the ammunition we fire and the food we eat. That bothers a lot of people, but the fact is that USAREUR is committed to the concept of host nation support. We must now concentrate on ways to make it happen.

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